Pronunciation of -ed

The Simple Past in English seems easy enough to make: just put –ed at the end of regular verbs (see here for more rules). The trick is in the pronunciation!

Please see below for the basic pronunciation rules for regular verbs in the simple past.

There are three different sounds -ed can make: /d/, /t/ and /id/.


-Words ending in:

-ze, -se, -r, -re, -ve, -n, -m, -y, -l, -le, or -a vowel sound.


Hose -> Hosed

Offer -> Offered

Mature -> Matured

Move -> Moved

Threaten -> Threatened

Ram -> Rammed

Enjoy -> Enjoyed

Ball -> Balled

Meddle -> Meddled

Agree -> Agreed


-Words ending in:

-gh, -f, -s, -sh, -ch, -ck, -k, -ke, -p


Laugh -> Laughed

Puff -> Puffed

Assess -> Assessed

Wash -> Washed

Match -> Matched

Lick -> Licked

Spark -> Sparked

Like -> Liked

Sip -> Sipped


-Words ending in:

-d, -de, -t, -te


Add -> Added

Side -> Sided

Blast -> Blasted

Accumulate -> Accumulated


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